largest Country in the world, India covering an area of 3.28 million sq. Kms
lies between 8º 4' N and 37º 6 North Latitude and 68º 7
and 97º 25East Longitudes. The Tropic of Cancer 23º 30
N divides India almost into two halves. The land frontier of the country is
15, 200 km and the total length of the coastline is over 7, 500 kms. India
is a vast peninsula separated by mainland Asia by the Himalayas. The
Himalayas form the highest mountain range in the world, extending 2,500 km
over northern India. The physical landscape of the great plains is
characterized by the wide and open valleys of the Indus and the Ganga and
Brahmaputra system; the river flows sluggishly throughout the year except
during monsoons when they overflows. The sheer contrast is overwhelming ,
where deserts of Rajasthan with vast sandy expanses incur scanty rainfall.
The backwaters of west coast and sandy and deltaic plains on the east are
The physiography of India is so desultory, its evident in its two distinct
Islands , Lakshyadeep and Andaman and Nicobar where the former is a group of
27 coral islands scattered in the Arabian sea.
River System of India
The river may be categorized into four divisions:
» The Himalayan -
The Himalayan rivers are
generally snow-fed and torpid throughout the year except during monsoons
when rivers carry maximum amount of water.
» The Deccan -
The Deccan rivers are generally
rain-fed and, therefore, vacillate greatly in volume. A very large number of
them are not recurrent.
» The Coastal -
The coastal rivers are also
non-perennial and short and have limited structures.
» The rivers of the inland drainage system -
rivers on the inland drainage basin are few and transient. They drain
towards individual basins or salt are lost in the sands, having no exit to
India is divide into seven physiographic regions :
Northern mountains -
These includes Himalayas and Karakoram ranges.
These mountain ranges are home to some of the world's tallest mountains and
act as a natural barrier to cold polar winds. They also facilitate the
monsoons wind drive climate in India. Rivers like Ganga, Yamuna, Indus owe
their origin to the Himalayas. Himalayas are blessed with natural vegetation
and also large biodiversity.
» Indo Gangetic plains -
The Indo-Gangetic plains
are large floodplains of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems.
They run parallel to the Himalaya mountains, from Jammu and Kashmir in the
west to Assam in the east, draining the states of Punjab, Haryana, parts of
Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. The northern
plains are the worlds largest alluvial plain, the soil is among the
most fertile in World.
Thar Desert -
The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert,
is a desert located in western India and southeastern Pakistan. It lies
mostly in the Indian state of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern
portion of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state.
» Central Highlands and Deccan Plateau -
southern peninsula is surrounded by mountains. To the northlie the Vindia
and the other mountain ranges that separate the Deccan from the northern
plains. To the east are the eastern ghats. The Deccan Plateau, also known as
"The Great Country" is one of the most stable land masses of the
» East Coast -
The Eastern Coastal Plain is a wide
stretch of land lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. It
stretches from Tamil Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the north. Deltas
of many of India's rivers form a major portion of these plains.
» West Coast -
The Western Coastal Plain is a
narrow strip of land in between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. Small
rivers and numerous backwaters swamp the region. The rivers, which originate
in the Western Ghats, are fast flowing and are mostly recurrent.
» Bordering seas and islands -
India is guarded by
Indian ocean, Arabian, sea, and Bay of Bengal. India has two major offshore
island possessions: the Lakshyadeep islands and the Andaman and Nicobar