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Indian Geography

The Himalayas MountainSeven largest Country in the world, India covering an area of 3.28 million sq. Kms lies between 8º 4' N and 37º 6’ North Latitude and 68º 7’ and 97º 25’East Longitudes. The Tropic of Cancer 23º 30’ N divides India almost into two halves. The land frontier of the country is 15, 200 km and the total length of the coastline is over 7, 500 kms. India is a vast peninsula separated by mainland Asia by the Himalayas. The Himalayas form the highest mountain range in the world, extending 2,500 km over northern India. The physical landscape of the great plains is characterized by the wide and open valleys of the Indus and the Ganga and Brahmaputra system; the river flows sluggishly throughout the year except during monsoons when they overflows. The sheer contrast is overwhelming , where deserts of Rajasthan with vast sandy expanses incur scanty rainfall. The backwaters of west coast and sandy and deltaic plains on the east are distinguish landscape.
The physiography of India is so desultory, its evident in its two distinct Islands , Lakshyadeep and Andaman and Nicobar where the former is a group of 27 coral islands scattered in the Arabian sea.

River System of India
The river may be categorized into four divisions:
» The Himalayan - The Himalayan rivers are generally snow-fed and torpid throughout the year except during monsoons when rivers carry maximum amount of water.

» The Deccan - The Deccan rivers are generally rain-fed and, therefore, vacillate greatly in volume. A very large number of them are not recurrent.

» The Coastal - The coastal rivers are also non-perennial and short and have limited structures.

» The rivers of the inland drainage system - The rivers on the inland drainage basin are few and transient. They drain towards individual basins or salt are lost in the sands, having no exit to the sea.

Physiographic Regions
India is divide into seven physiographic regions :

Northern Mountains» Northern mountains - These includes Himalayas and Karakoram ranges. These mountain ranges are home to some of the world's tallest mountains and act as a natural barrier to cold polar winds. They also facilitate the monsoons wind drive climate in India. Rivers like Ganga, Yamuna, Indus owe their origin to the Himalayas. Himalayas are blessed with natural vegetation and also large biodiversity.

» Indo Gangetic plains - The Indo-Gangetic plains are large floodplains of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems. They run parallel to the Himalaya mountains, from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east, draining the states of Punjab, Haryana, parts of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. The northern plains are the world’s largest alluvial plain, the soil is among the most fertile in World.

Desert» Thar Desert - The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a desert located in western India and southeastern Pakistan. It lies mostly in the Indian state of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portion of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state.

» Central Highlands and Deccan Plateau - The southern peninsula is surrounded by mountains. To the northlie the Vindia and the other mountain ranges that separate the Deccan from the northern plains. To the east are the eastern ghats. The Deccan Plateau, also known as "The Great Country" is one of the most stable land masses of the world.

» East Coast - The Eastern Coastal Plain is a wide stretch of land lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. It stretches from Tamil Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the north. Deltas of many of India's rivers form a major portion of these plains.

» West Coast - The Western Coastal Plain is a narrow strip of land in between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. Small rivers and numerous backwaters swamp the region. The rivers, which originate in the Western Ghats, are fast flowing and are mostly recurrent.

» Bordering seas and islands - India is guarded by Indian ocean, Arabian, sea, and Bay of Bengal. India has two major offshore island possessions: the Lakshyadeep islands and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

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